unless "lower_case_table_names" option is set to 1 or 2. Or wait, is that only if set to 1?

Windows - case insensitive
Unix & Linux - case sensitive
Unless it's OSX using HFS+ file system - case insensitive

lower_case_table_names
0: store casing, compare sensitive
1: store in lower-case, compare insensitive
2: store casing, but compare as if lower-case

For extra fun: it's apparently possible and allowed to set a value of 0 on case insensitive file systems, but doing so while refering to tables using different casings may lead to MyISAM index corruption.
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/...nsitivity.html
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/...se_table_names