Hmm, no expert, but here's a very generalized overview.
Junior college --- 2 year program, Associate of Arts or Associate of Sciences degree.
College --- 4 year program, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Sciences, Bachelor of ... widely varied, the school is usually smaller and usually doesn't offer much in the way of "advanced" degrees (ie, after bachelors). Subdivisions of the college are "schools", (School of Mathematics and Sciences, the School of Education, the School of Philosophy and Social Sciences, the School of Religion, the School of Fine Arts, etc.) [usually named after a big donor, heh] and the percentage of profs having doctorates is probably 50% or less. Less emphasis on pure research and more on creating educated personages as graduates...
Note that I said very generalized
University --- also a 4 year program, Bachelor's degrees as above, larger in terms of population and facilities, generally, subdivisions are called "Colleges", higher percentage of profs with doctorate and post-doctoral work, more emphasis on research, etc. Advanced degrees (Masters and Doctorate) offered in many subjects.
The "University" I attended was a "College" until the late 1970's. When I got there it was still small, and still offered no graduate work. By the time I left they were offering two types of Masters' degrees.
I guess the real point is that over here, it's often a matter of "perception factor" ...